Cosmogenic surface exposure dating
This is different from techniques (like Ar, or U/Th) that date the formation of a rock itself.
Super high energy particles—mostly protons— are produced by our Sun, supernovae, and probably other extraterrestrial sources.
East of the LGM margin exposure ages from 35 samples show Late Weichselian ages in a range between 20.6 - 11.9 ka.
To test to what extent these dates reflect the onset of deglaciation immediately after cessation of active glacier flow, surface exposure ages are evaluated against independent chronologies of Late Weichselian ice-sheet fluctuations in southwestern Scandinavia.
The glacial stages that have been identified are: the Indus Valley glacial stage, dated at older than 430 ka; the Leh glacial stage occurring in the penultiniate glacial cycle or older; the Kar glacial stage, occurring during the early part of the last glacial cycle; the Bazgo glacial stage, at its maximum during the middle of the last glacial cycle, and the early Holocene Khalling glacial stage.
The exposure ages of the Indus Valley moraines are the oldest observed to date throughout the Himalayan orogen.
If we are particularly interested in the timing of the uncovering of a surface—say, bedrock that had been covered by ice, or sediments that had been revealed by the incision of a stream—we can employ cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating to study that uncovering process.
Data from both cosmogenic nuclides are in overall good agreement with each other confirming continuous exposure of the Gotthard Pass area throughout the Holocene.
Some slightly younger in situ 14C ages compared to the corresponding 10Be ages are interpreted to result from partial surface shielding due to snow cover.
We conclude, that interpretation of cosmogenic exposure ages should include careful evaluation of possible post-depositional landform transformation in attempts to fine tune ages of e.g. With reference to independent age models we critically evaluate glacier advance – retreat scenarios from regions around the southern Baltic that alone are based on weighted average ages of cosmogenic exposure dating.
Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of moraine boulders and alluvial fan sediments define the timing of five glacial advances over at least the last five glacial cycles in the Ladakh Range of the Transhirnalaya.